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Vitamin B complex (Riboflavin)

 It is a group of vitamins which are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism and synthesis of red blood cells. Though these vitamins share similar names, they are chemically distinct compounds that often coexist in the same foods. This group of water-soluble vitamins, including thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B 12, is Also called B-complex.

Riboflavin

(Vitamin B2) is a member of the B-group vitamins. It has a fundamental role in cellular oxidation. It plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the mucocutaneous structure. It is a co-factor in a number of enzymes involved with energy metabolism. Riboflavin is a constituent of two coenzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions of cellular respiration: Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). A number of redox enzymes, angular including glutathione reductase and xanthine oxidase, require flavin coenzymes.  It is also involved in antioxidant activity, being a co-factor for the enzymes like glutathione reeducate and is required for the metabolism of other vitamins like vitamin B6, niacin, and vitamin K.

Riboflavin Requirements

The recommended daily intake is 0.4 mg/1000 Cal for infants and 0.8- 1.2 mg/1000 Cal for children.

Sources

Its richest natural sources are milk, eggs, liver, kidney, and green leafy vegetables (broccoli, spinach, and asparagus). Meat and fish contain small amounts. Cereals (whether whole or milled) and pulses are relatively poor sources. Riboflavin is resistant to oxidation and to heat and is not destroyed by pasteurization. Human milk contains 40- 70 μg/100 Cal of riboflavin and cow milk 250 μg/100 Cal.

Deficiency

Riboflavin deficiency occurs from inadequate. It takes 1-2 months to develop and is associated with other deficiencies. Features include photophobia, glossitis, cheilosis, angular stomatitis, seborrhea dermatitis (especially around the nasolabial folds) and corneal vascularization.

The most common lesion associated with riboflavin deficiency is angular stomatitis, which occurs frequently in malnourished children and its prevalence is used as an index of the state of nutrition of groups of children. Other clinical signs suggestive (but not specific) include cheilosis, glossitis, nasolabial etc. Hypo-riboflavinosis, even when severe, seldom incapacitates the individual, but it may have subtle functional effects such as impaired neuromotor function, wound healing and perhaps increased susceptibility to cataract. Riboflavin deficiency almost always occurs in association with deficiencies of other B-complex vitamins such as pyridoxine; it is usually a part of a multiple deficiency syndrome.

Diagnosis

should be considered with. a history of dietary deficiency and clinical manifestations. A reliable indicator of riboflavin status is the daily loss of the vitamin; urinary excretion of less than 10% of intake over 24 hours is indicative of deficiency. The activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes gives a functional index of flavin coenzyme activity; cofactor induced increase of 20% above the basal level indicates deficiency.

Treatment

Children are treated with 3-10 mg of oral riboflavin daily for several weeks; infants respond to 1 mg daily. Therapeutic doses of vitamin help in improving corneal lesions rapidly. Rapid recovery usually follows the administration of riboflavin 10 mg daily.

Published : Apr 4 2022
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